Published on August 19, 2011 under the tag haskell
What is this?
The Google Summer of Code deadline ends about now, so it is time to reflect on the progress I’ve made. Yesterday, we had a conference call with Bryan O’Sullivan, Johan Tibell and my mentor Edward Kmett in order to discuss what we should do with my results and patches.
The patches will not be merged into the trunk for now. However, we do consider this project succesful. Read on…
The general idea
By converting from UTF-16 to UTF-8, I slowed down a lot of functions. This is
inevitable, because most functions in the
Data.Text library are implemented as
f :: Text -> Text = unstream . f' . stream f g :: Text -> Text = unstream . g' . streamg
In this case,
f' is a function that works on characters instead of bytes,
unstream do the conversion from and to the byte array.
Data.Text has a stream fusion framework, which means that a function such as
h :: Text -> Text = f . gh
is (by GHC) translated to
h :: Text -> Text = unstream . f' . stream . unstream . g' . streamh
which, in turn, gets optimized using stream fusion:
h :: Text -> Text = unstream . f' . g' . streamh
What does this mean for us? We know that functions such as
exactly the same when using either UTF-16 or UTF-8: only the
unstream functions are affected. And since they now deal with UTF-8, which is
a little more complicated, functions such as
h are generally more expensive.
So where is the benefit from porting the library to UTF-8? This comes from the fact that most applications use something like:
p :: ByteString -> ByteString = encodeUtf8 . h . decodeUtf8p
and when the internal encoding is UTF-8 as well, we can optimize both
This was an experimental project from the start, since we did not actually know whether or not these changes would make the text library faster – which is why benchmarking was such an important part of it.
It turns out that, as we predicted, it usually is an optimization, albeit a very small one, and it is not certain if the relatively small speedup will be worth all of the work involved in completely switching to UTF-8. While I completely ported the text library, it would still involve:
- lot of testing, since we can’t break one of the “core libraries”
- porting of
text-icu, which is far from trivial
The list of external libraries which uses UTF-16 (and with which we might wish to communicate) is also fairly large: ICU, Java, .Net, Cocoa…
This might (or might not) outweigh the fact that we would usually have better (less) memory usage for UTF-8.
So, because there was not really a very compelling reason for Bryan to choose for either of the two, he chose to keep the UTF-16 version for now, because this requires less work.
More about memory usage
One of the reasons to switch to UTF-8 was the face that memory usage could be
reduced for ASCII text, which is very common in markup languages. However, a
Text value takes 6 words, plus the payload in bytes. This means that
converting to UTF-8 usually would not be such a big gain in terms of memory
usage if you have lots of small
- On a 32 bit system, you need a string of at least 24 characters before the payload outweighs the overhead.
- On a 64 bit system, this becomes a string of at least 48 characters.
That being said, UTF-8 still has some advantages here: for example, when
Text values for equality, the less bytes you need to check, the
Was all my work in vain?
Certainly not! What future is there for all the patches I’ve written?
- Many of them have already been merged into the trunk: we now have a better benchmark suite for future optimizations and the tests have also gotten a big cleanup.
- A lot of optimizations I’ve applied can also be applied to the UTF-16 version. This is very interesting, because it means I will be able to make text faster in the near future by just porting patches.
- The idea is to maintain the UTF-8 fork for now, as future GHC versions might be able to fix some issues we have with branch prediction. It is not unthinkable that we will switch once there is a compelling reason to do so.
So, as a finishing note to conclude this project (or at least the official timespan of it, because I am looking forward to doing some more work with text and my patches), thanks again to my mentor(s) Bryan, Edward and Johan!