Erasing "expected" messages in Parsec

A useful little trick to improve parser errors
Published on September 2, 2015 under the tag haskell


Parsec is an industrial-strength parser library. I think one of its main advantages is that it allows you generate really good error messages. However, this sometimes requires some non-obvious tricks. In this blogpost, I describe one of those. On the way, we illustrate how one can split up a Parsec parser into a lexer and an actual parser.

This blogpost assumes a little familiarity with Parsec or parser combinator libraries. There are tons of Parsec tutorials out there, such as this one.

TL:DR: Using <?> "" allows you to erase error messages which in some cases can actually improve them.

This blogpost is written in literate Haskell so you should be able to just load it up in GHCi and play around with it (you can find the raw .lhs file here).

A simple expression parser

{-# LANGUAGE FlexibleContexts #-}
import Control.Monad (void)
import Text.Parsec

As an example, let’s build a simple Polish notation parser to parse expressions like:

+ 2 (+ 1 4)

We can model the expressions we want to parse like this:

data Expr
    = Lit Int
    | Add Expr Expr
    deriving (Show)

Our parser is pretty straightforward – there are three cases: literals, additions, and expressions enclosed by parentheses.

expr :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m Expr
expr = (<?> "expression") $
    (Lit <$> natural)               <|>
    (plus >> Add <$> expr <*> expr) <|>
    (lparen *> expr <* rparen)

This uses the auxiliary parsers natural, plus, lparen and rparen. These are so-called token parsers. It is a common design pattern to split up a parser into a lexer (in this case, we call the collection of token parsers the lexer) and the actual parser 1.

The idea behind that is that the lexer takes care of fiddling with whitespace, comments, and produces tokens – atomic symbols of the language such as 123, +, (, and ). The parser can then focus on the actual logic: parsing expressions. It doesn’t need to care about details such as whitespace.


Now, onto the token parsers. These are typically placed in another module. First, let’s build some tools for dealing with whitespace and comments. Parsec already provides a parser to consume white space (spaces), so let’s add one for a comment:

-- | Consume a comment (from a '#' character to the end of the line) and
-- return nothing.
comment :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m ()
comment = (<?> "comment") $ char '#' >> void (manyTill anyChar endOfLine)

Using comment and spaces, we can build a parser that skips both:

whitespace :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m ()
whitespace = do
    optional $ comment >> whitespace

Now, let’s define a token parser a bit more clearly: a token parser is a parser which consumes an atomic symbol followed by an arbitrary amount of whitespace.

This way, we can just use token parsers after one another in the parser and it is clear that the whitespace in between two tokens is consumed by the first token parser. Then, we only have to remember to strip whitespace from the beginning of the file when we write the top-level parser, like:

whitespace *> expr

Before we define our token parsers, let’s add a quick combinator which facilitates it:

lexeme :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m a -> ParsecT s u m a
lexeme p = p <* whitespace

We can use lexeme to define some simple tokens:

plus, lparen, rparen :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m Char
plus   = lexeme $ char '+'
lparen = lexeme $ char '('
rparen = lexeme $ char ')'

Followed by a slightly more complicated token:

-- | Parse one or more digits as a decimal integer
natural :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m Int
natural = (<?> "number") $ lexeme $ do
    x  <- try digit
    xs <- many digit
    return $ read (x : xs)

That’s it! Now we have our parser. If we parse the following expression:

+ (+ 1 2)
  (+ 3
     # Four is a really cool number

We get:

Add (Add (Lit 1) (Lit 2)) (Add (Lit 3) (Lit 4))

Looking good!

Erasing “expected” error messages

At last, we arrive at the point of this blogpost. Let’s try to parse the following expression:

+ (+ 1 2)
  (- 2 3)

We get the following error:

unexpected "-"
expecting white space, comment or expression

The error message is correct but a bit verbose. Sure, there could be a comment or whitespace at that position, but the user is probably aware of that. The real issue is that the parser is expecting an expression.

In the Parsec documentation, there is no reference to how one can manipulate this message. However, when we take a closer look at the Parsec source code, it turns out that there is a way: using <?> with the empty string "".

I think treating the empty string as a special case is a bit un-Haskelly – <?> would be more self-documenting if it took a Maybe String as its second argument – but it is what it is.

<?> "" is a bit confusing to read – it is not immediately clear what it does so let’s turn it into a named combinator for clarity:

eraseExpected :: ParsecT s u m a -> ParsecT s u m a
eraseExpected = (<?> "")

We can rewrite whitespace using this combinator.

whitespace' :: Stream s m Char => ParsecT s u m ()
whitespace' = do
    skipMany $ eraseExpected space
    optional $ eraseExpected comment >> whitespace'

Notice that we had to inline the definition of spaces before erasing the error message. This is because <?> only sets the error message if the parser fails without consuming any input. This means that:

eraseExpected spaces

Would not erase the error message if at least one space character is consumed. Hence, we use skipMany $ eraseExpected space.

If we fix lexeme to use the new whitespace', we get a much nicer error message (in the spirit of less is more):

unexpected "-"
expecting expression

Thanks to Alex Sayers for proofreading.

  1. Traditionally, the lexer and parser are actually split into separate phases, where the lexer produces a Token datatype stream from the input String. Parsec, however, also allows you to write both at the same time, which is what we do in this blogpost. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages.↩︎